The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), an incurable infection that usually remains in your body for the rest of your life, impairs your immune system. Standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) contains a combination of three or more antiretroviral (ARV) medications to suppress the HIV virus and prevent disease progression to the highest degree possible. Potent ARV regimens have reduced suffering and death rates significantly in recent years.
Now, new research shows that your dosage frequency plays a key role in medication efficacy. Women need antiretroviral therapy to stop HIV transmissions more frequently than men, according to University of North Carolina pharmacy scientists. Save by ordering affordable HIV prescriptions from CanadaDrugPharmacy.com. For convenience, shop for a wide range of additional Drugs by Condition online.
Researchers Establish Treatment Frequencies
Angela Kashuba, Pharm.D., and her research team devised a mathematical tool, indicating that women should administer the Truvada antiretroviral medication on a daily basis to avoid spreading HIV through vaginal sex. But taking the same medicine just twice a week protects men from HIV transmissions through anal sex. These findings might help clarify why two sizable clinical trials that tested HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on women didn’t show efficacy. Those trials recommended subjects to take Truvada or tenofovir daily to prevent HIV. But patients administered just 29 percent of their antiretroviral drug doses during one trial and 36 percent in the other.
First, researchers established the intracellular ratios for the emtricitabine and tenofovir drugs comprising Truvada per the necessary DNA molecules that preclude HIV replication. Then using statistics from earlier trials on women, they predicted rectal, vaginal, cervical tissue ratios with standard medicine doses prescribed for two to seven days each week. Lastly, they calculated what percentages of study subjects achieved those ratios to prevent HIV duplication at every dosage frequency.
This model predicts that two weekly Truvada doses or one daily standard tenofovir dose will attain the ratio that’s necessary to stop HIV reproduction in rectal tissues among study subjects. A conventional daily Truvada dose should reach the vaginal tissue ratio in over 75 percent of participants and the cervical tissue target in 50 percent of the women. The new model forecasted that under half of the participants taking the typical tenofovir daily dosage accomplished the target ratio for vaginal and cervical tissues.
According to the researchers, realizing the goal in rectal tissues is easier because the DNA molecule concentration is lower in that location and the tenofocir objective is higher there than in women’s genital area. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s guidelines, all men and women should take their Truvada pills daily according to their prescriber’s directions for PrEP.
Medication Adherence Strategies from AIDSinfo
- Use a pillbox with separate daily sections.
- Stick to repetitive dosing times every day.
- Set smartphone alarms or timers for your medicine times.
- Invite family, friends, and coworkers to provide reminders.
- A prescription diary or smartphone app can help you record every dose you take.
- Keep your medications handy.Store an extra quantity in your work desk, briefcase, or purse.
- Plan for weekends, vacations, and holidays changing your daily routine.Keep a spare medicine supply in your pocket or purse whenever you leave town to accommodate loss or return delays.
- Use a calendar to remember every medical appointment and prescription refill date.
The Evolution of Antiretroviral Therapy
For most people up until the early 2000s, HIV infection was a death sentence, yet a limited number of sufferers in developing countries received ARV treatments. But a 2003 campaign launch extended life-saving drug therapies to countless needy people. Almost 10 million HIV-positive patients were receiving medications in developing countries by the close of 2012. Revised clinical guidelines played a vital role in making the international availability of ARV drugs an important public health triumph. Among South Africans, for example, life expectancy for adults has risen 11 years in the last decade, when their public health system began providing treatment.
In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced updated public health guidelines on antiretroviral drugs to treat and prevent HIV infection. It based the recommended change on years of accumulated evidence and thousands of remarks from 120 collaborators, which included doctors, researchers, and community representatives as well as over 100 peer reviews. The revised guidelines included new advice to begin treating an earlier viral stage, which increased the global patients who became eligible to receive treatment.
Data showed that early treatment instigation allowed HIV patients to be healthier and survive longer while decreasing their odds of infecting other people. Officials estimated that this change could avoid 3.5 million additional new HIV infections and prevent an extra 3 million fatalities by 2025. New treatment recommendations change the threshold to begin ARV treatment in patients with CD4+ counts of 500 cells per microliter or less, despite their clinical stages. This major adjustment to previous guidelines advises initiating treatment in those with CD4+ counts of 350 or fewer cells per microliter.
The WHO also recommends ARV to prevent HIV infection, especially among expectant mothers, youngsters, and populations that experience high HIV exposure rates. Many countries are adapting guidelines based on local HIV transmission rates. The WHO also has made the expansion of ARV prescription medication use in developing countries a priority by optimizing diagnostics and drugs while enhancing community engagement.